Friday Five – 2011/10/07 : The trolley problem and other thought experiments


thefridayfive: Friday Five for October 7th 2011.

Archives: Friday Five

  1. What is your response to Philippa Foot’s infamous trolley problem? (For those who don’t know, the problem is thus: “A trolley (or train, if you prefer) is running out of control down a track. In its path are five people who have been tied to the track by a mad philosopher. Fortunately, you could flip a switch, which will lead the trolley down a different track to safety. Unfortunately, there is a single person tied to that track. Should you flip the switch or do nothing?”) Why should/why shouldn’t you flip the switch?(「Philippa Foot’s infamous trolley problem」に対するあなたの回答は?(5人が縛られている場所へ台車が突っ込もうとしている。あなたがスイッチを押せば、その台車を別の場所へそらすことが出来るが、その場所には別の1人が縛られている。スイッチを押すや?押さざるや?))
  2. What if the only way to stop the trolley from killing five people would be to physically push someone into its path? Should you push that person or leave them be? Why/why not?(5人を救うための唯一の手段が、台車の通り道に誰かを押し出すことであったなら?あなたはその人を押すか…それともそのままにしておくか。)
  3. What if the person on the other track is a child? Should you flip the switch or do nothing? What if you had to physically push the child instead of flipping a switch? Why/why not?(別の場所に縛られているのが子供であったらスイッチを押す?)
  4. A sailor builds a ship and names it Vessel of Theseus. He takes it on a long voyage and along the way, he is forced to repair it with new parts at every port. By the time he reaches home again, not a single piece of the original ship remains attached. Having lost all its original pieces, is it still the same ship? Why or why not?(ある船乗りが船を建造し長い旅に出た。彼は港ごとに船を修理し、帰港したときの船にはオリジナルのパーツは1つもなかった。この船は元の船と同じだと言えるだろうか?)
  5. What if the original pieces of the Vessel of Theseus were then gathered up and used to build another ship, christened Hobbes’ Way? Which ship (if either) is the original Vessel? Why?(それぞれの港で交換されたオリジナルパーツを集めて1つの船を造ったとする。この船は元の船と同じだろうか?)
    先ほどの回答と同じ。オリジナルパーツを集めて作られたこの船は、存在としては「Vessel of Theseus」ではない。